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Exhibition organized by the Department of Prints and Drawings 
Essay by Gunther Thiem 

Los Angeles County Museum of Art Ahmanson Gallery July 11-September 15, 1985 

Heckel, Woman, 1913 (cat. no. 30) 

Director's Foreword 

Prints by Erich Heckel and Karl Schmidt-Rottliijj is tne Los Angeles County Museum or Art's 
rirst exninition aevotea entirely to tne graphic works or tnese celebrated German 
Expressionist artists. It commemorates tne centenaries or tneir birtris. Tnese two men were, 
arter Ernst Luawig Kircnner, tne outstanding artists or tne Briicke, tne group tney co- 
rounded witn nim in Dresden in 1905. The museums holdings or prints by Heckel and 
Schmidt-Rottlurr have recently been enriched by acquisitions rrom the Robert Gore Rirkind 
Foundation, which are now part or the Robert Gore Rirkind Center ror German 
Expressionist Studies at the museum. 

Coming soon arter the revelatory exhibition German Expressionist Sculpture (LACMA, 
10/30/83—1/22/84), organized by Stephanie Barron, curator or Twentieth -Century Art, 
and the comprehensive Afax Beckmann Retrospective (LACMA, 12/9/84—2/3/85), Prints by 
Erich Heckel ana Karl Schmiat-Rottlujj continues the museum's tribute to the lascinating and 
compelling art or German Expressionism. 

The initial plan or the exhibition originated in discussions between Robert Gore 
Rirkind and Dr. Gunther Thiem, rormer curator or graphic art at the Staatsgalerie Stuttgart. 
Dr. Thiem, who was a personal rriend or Karl Schmidt-Rottlurr ror rorty-two years, has 
written or his work on numerous occasions, including the comprehensive exhibition in honor 
or the artists eightieth birthday, which was seen in Hannover, Essen, Frankrurt, and Berlin. 
Through Schmidt-Rottlurr, Dr. Thiem became acquainted with Erich Heckel, to whose 
work he devoted two exhibitions in Stuttgart. Thanks are due to Gunther Thiem and Robert 
Gore Rirkind ror bringing about this signincant American-German collaboration and to 
Ebria Feinblatt and Bruce Davis or the museum's Department or Prints and Drawings ror its 

Earl A. Powell III 

rich Heckel and Karl Schmidt- 
Rottluri came irom central 
Liermany, an area that, perhaps 
because or its mixture or Nor- 
dic and Slavic elements, has 
produced many artists. Erich 
Hecfcel was born on July 31, 
1883, in Dobeln, a small 
industrial town in the lormer 
Kingdom or baxony. His lather 
was an engineer. Karl Schmidt 
was born on December 1, 1884, in Rottluii, near Chemnitz, 
which was at one time an important industrial town in Sax- 
ony. Like Rembrandt, he was the son ol a miller. Both 
attended high school in Chemnitz, where they met in 1901. 
Tney irequented Vulfcan, a literary circle, and read 
Nietzsche, Strindberg, Ibsen, and Dostoyevsfci (see Heckel s 
woodcuts The Murder of Akulka by Dostoyevski and Two Men at 
a Table, an illustration lor Dostoyevski s The laiot, cat. nos. 
27 and 28). 

Both Heckel and Schmidt-Rottlull went on to study 
architecture with Proiessor Fritz Schumacher at the Tech- 
nische Hochschule (Technical Academy) in Dresden. They 
colounded the artists' group known as the Briicke (Bridge) 
with Ernst Ludwig Kirchner and Fritz Bleyl on June 7, 
1905. The group shared a studio, which they set up in a 
lormer butcher's shop, and used the same models (lor exam- 
ple, Franzi, the model tor Heckel's Stanaiiig Child of 1910, 
cat. no. 23), and in the beginning they exhibited together as 
well. (bchmidt-Rottlulrs rirst solo exhibition was in Ham- 
burg in 1912; Heckel's was in Berlin in 1913.) From 1907 
on, Heckel and Schmidt-Rottluli spent many ol their sum- 
mers working together in Dangast on the North Sea. In the 

tall of 1911 they moved to Berlin, where Schmidt-Rottluff 
remained until his death. Heckel moved to Lake Constance 
(Bodensee), on the border or Germany, Switzerland, and 
Austria, after the bombing of his studio in 1944. 

Both artists served in the First World War, Heckel as a 
medic in Flanders and Schmidt-Rottlull at a staff head- 
quarters on the eastern front. They both found time for 
artistic pursuits during the war. Heckel continued his work 
in graphics (see Two Wounded Men, 1914, and Near Ghent, 
1916, cat. nos. 35 and 39); Schmidt-Rottluff carved wood 
sculptures. Heckel married the dancer Siddi Riha in 1915; 
Schmidt-Rottluff married Emy Frisch in 1919. 

In 1918 they began to drift apart, although both still 
lived in Berlin. Schmidt-Rottluff heightened the expres- 
siveness of his angular, architectonic style, which became 
more curvilinear under the influence of a trip through Italy 
to Lapri in 1923. After the war Heckel revealed his gift for 
the contemplative and the narrative. He also enjoyed travel- 
ing. For the most part, the works that these artists produced 
after the age of forty stand in the shadow of those produced 
during their early period of genius. 


lat Is the Brucke?1 

The Briicke was an association that was founded in 
1905 in Dresden by four architecture students who were 
self-taught painters and graphic artists. Ernst Ludwig 
Kirchner (1880—1938) was the oldest ol the group and had 
the greatest knowledge of contemporary and traditional 
German art (this was especially important for the revival of 

1. See Ocnnan Expressionist Sculpture, exn. cat. (Los Angeles: Los Angeles 
County Museum of Art, 1983), pp. 182-87. 

Heclcel, Two WounJcJ Men, 1914 
(cat. no. 35) 

the wnoclcut). Erich Heckel 
also had a strong interest in 
poetry; in 1912 he hecame 
rriendly with the poet bteran 
Oeorge and his circle. Karl 
Schmidt- Rottlurr gave the 
group its name, apparently 
inspired by a passage rrom 
Nietzsche's Tlius Spoke 
Zaratlmstra: "What is great in 
man is that he is a bridge and 
not an end: what can be loved 
in man is that he is a going 
across and a going under." The 
lourth Briiche artist, Fritz 

Bleyl (1880-1966?), left the 

group in 1909 to devote himseir to teaching and 

In 1911 the Briicke artists moved to Berlin, which was 
not only the capital oi the German Empire but was also 
becoming a European art capital. In May 1913 the group 
disbanded, mainly because or Kirchner's pretension to lead- 
ership. Each artist went his own way. The First World War 
rurther tested their relationships. By the time or its dissolu- 
tion, the group had expanded beyond its original rour mem- 
bers. The academically trained Max Pechstein joined in 
1906, as did Emil Nolde, although the latter remained with 
the group only briefly. Otto Miiller joined in 1910. Pech- 
stein and Schmidt-Rottlurt remained rriendly; they both 
held teaching positions at the Hochschule riir Bildende 
Kijnste (Academy ol Fine Arts) in Berlin alter 1945. 
Miiller and Hecfcel were also friends, and when Miiller died 
in 1930, Heckel acted as his executor. Least capable or 
friendship was Kirchner. From 1917 on he lived in isolation 
in Davos, Switzerland, estranged from his former friends. 

The Dresden Briicke was the earliest nucleus of Ger- 
man Expressionism; its vitality was the purest embodiment 
of the expressionist element in twentieth-century art. For 

this reason, the Neiien Wilacn, or Neo-Expressionists, today 
look to these artists for inspiration, rather than to the more 
intellectual artists of the Blaue Reiter (Blue Rider) group. It 
was only the Briicke artists who, through their small studio- 
collective, brought forth a unined style. 


natls txpressionism? 

: ia» 

Expressionism is a German art movement of the nrst 
quarter of the twentieth century that also embraced music 
and poetry.-" It is not, like the contemporary movements of 
Fauvism (1904) and Cubism (1908) in France, stylistically 
denned. Expressionism, like the Russian avant-garde, was 
the outpouring of a new feeling for life, a desire to break 
loose from all conventions, artistic as well as social. This 
goal was only accomplished by the most gifted artists. Like a 
powerful wave. Expressionism swept over everything — even 
political life — and inspired great hope for a new society, 
especially after the dissolution of the empire. Like German 
Romanticism one hundred years earlier, it was an urge for 
originality and freedom from rigid traditions. It was not 
only a reaction against historicism and academicism but 
also against the Jugendstil (Art Nouveau) emphasis on dec- 
oration at the expense of social commitment and the art- 
for-art's-sake aesthetic of the Impressionists, to which it 
nevertheless owed a great deal. Especially influential for 
these young artists were Vincent van Gogh's uncompromis- 
ing life-style, the primitivism of Paul Gauguin, who fled 
France for the South Seas, and the antibourgeois subject 
matter of the Norwegian artist Edvard Munch, who first 

2. The term Expressionism was lirst used in 1911 by tne art historian and 
critic Wilhelm Worringer. 

3. Tne periodicals oT the era, which are well represented in the Riti^ind 
collection, testily to this lervor in pictures ana in words and, indeed, in their 
titles alone; lor example, Die Alztion (Action), Der biunji (Storm), Das tieue 
Pathos (The New Pathos), Genius, Die rote Erde (Tbe Red Eartb), and 

gained recognition in Oermany. 

Tne Expressionist movement naa a relatively brier lire 
span or anout twelve years (1907—19). To some extent, this 
is inherent in its nature, wnicn, especially in painting, can be 
likened to a fire tnat consumes itselr. In regard to its histor- 
ical iiTipact, txpressionism was the victim or a hostile polit- 
ical climate. Not until 1918 were the Expressionists recog- 
nized. Soon aiterward, the movement was in the midst or a 
crisis, which was proclaimed by the art critics. In 1922 the 
art historian Richard Hamann wrote, "From all quarters we 
hear the knell: Expressionism is aeaa.""'' The Expressionists 
were maligned by the Nazis, and alter 1933 their works were 
banned Irom museums, and a large number were destroyed 
or, at best, sold abroad. As a result, they had to be redis- 
covered in their own country alter 1946. 

Whereas bourgeois society saw only a mockery or tra- 
ditional values in Expressionist art, today we can also rec- 
ognize — without overlooking its revolutionary spirit — its 
indebtedness to, among other things, the tradition oi the 
German woodcut (Albrecht Diirer's 1498 series ol wood- 
cuts, The Apocalypse, is an expressionistic vision) and the 
"rehabilitation" ol the art ol primitive peoples. The Briicke 
artists were enthralled by the expressive power ol the art 
they saw at the Volkerkunde-Museum (Ethnographic 
Museum) in Dresden. Sculpture prohted the most Irom the 
primitive inlluence, as the exhibition in Los Angeles 

Printed graphics make up only a part ol the oeuvre ol 
Heckel and Schmidt-Rottlull, but it is the best-known and 
most-appreciated part. With the exception ol Heckel s 
woodcut ol 1931 (cat. no. 48), the works in this exhibition 
were created between 1904 and 1923. The most recent, in 
other words, date Irom a time when the artists were each 
hardly lorty years old. This is not a coincidence. By 1923 
Expressionism had passed its prime. No one recognized this 

Heckel, StmJmg Child, 1910 
(cat. no. 23) 

more clearly than its 
creators, whereas their suc- 
cessors continued to paint in 
this style and still do so 

completed his graphic 
oeuvre, with a lew excep- 
tions, in 1927. Heck el's 
graphic output declined 
during the 1920s, tut he 
took up printmaking again 
after 1945. After 1927 both 
artists concentrated on 
painting, not only in oil but 

in watercolor. Indeed, their 

watercolors are among their Hnest achievements as painters. 
They continued to paint in secret during the dilncult years 
ol their proscription by the Nazis as entartete Kunstler 
("degenerate artists"). Above all, they always attempted to 
realize their ideal ol embracing every medium, as sculptors, 
as craltsmen in metal and stone, and as designers ol books, 
textiles, and furniture." 

The graphic works ol the Briicke artists can thus be 
regarded as merely a part ol the whole, but they are a lully 
autonomous part, and they are not secondary to their paint- 
ings. Their prints and paintings are, however, intimately 
related; the prints functioned as a proving ground for 
effects that were later used in painting. The compositional 

4. RicnarJ Hamann, Kittist and Kiiltiir Jcr Gegcnivart (MarLurg: 
Kunstgescnicntlicnc Seminar, \^'Z'Z), p. 3. 

5. L'ntil about 1918 Heclcel made jewelry out of embosseu silver ami semi- 
precious stones. Scnmiat-Rottlult not only made jewelry tnrougnout his 
lite out also made wall nangings, carved and painted wooden cnests, 
wooden bowls, and many otner small, practical objects, bee Plastih una 
KunstnanJwcm I'on Malcm acir astitscncn cxpresslonismus, exn. cat., essay by 
Martin Urban (Scnleswig: Scbleswig-Holsteiniscnes Landesmuseum; 
1 lamburg: Museum uir Kunst und Oewerbe, 1960). 

structure, the dramatic contrasts, the rlattening oi the pic- 
ture plane were all developea hrst in the graphic media, 
especially the woodcut, and were then applied to painting. 
This reversal oi the usual priority is evidence or the 
inventiveness or these artists and or the elevated status that 
the graphic arts had attained alter years or reproductive 

H. A. P. GrieshaLer (1909-81), tKe most famous 
Post-Expressionist woodcut artist and the successor to 
Erich Hecfcel at the Karlsruhe Academy, denned the nature 
and position or graphics: "By graphic art, one usually means 
something quantitative, and it is thought that this can he 
remedied by making a cheaper original. My experience has 
heen that graphics are something else altogether; they 
occupy a position somewhere between painting and 

Graphic Jechniqiij 

The Woodcut — The rlat woodcut or the Expressionists 
bears little resemblance to the linear wood engraving 
invented by the Englishman Thomas Bewick (1753—1828). 
The woodcut developed as a lorm oi rolfc art in the early 
hrteenth century and was elevated to the rank or hne art by 
Albrecht Diirer (1471—1628). It was rediscovered by Paul 
Gauguin (1848-1903), Edvard Munch (1863-1944), and 
Felix Vallotton (1865—1926). The young Expressionist 
artists were no doubt tamiliar with their works. 

The emotional power or Expressionist prints is based 
largely on the artists' knowledge ot the structure and inher- 
ent properties or the materials they worked with. Wood is an 
especially resistant material, and because it does not allow 
the artist to make corrections in the plate, it rorces a com- 
plete clarincation oi the pictorial idea. 

Heckel began making woodcuts in 1904; Schmidt- 
Rottlurr made his nrst woodcut a year later. Heckel loved 
the color woodcut, whereas Schmidt-Rottlurt preferred 
black and white. This is another indication or their diver- 

gent predilections. The almost complete absence of color in 
bchmidt-Rottluff's graphics is understood by everyone who 
knew him. As a man ana as an artist, he was strict ana 
uncompromising. For him, as for Diirer, graphics were pri- 
marily a black-and-white medium, and he intensihed this 
contrast more than any other artist, thereby achieving a 
monumental style. The structural was Schmidt-Rottluff's 
overriding compositional principle. His radical views about 
form separated him from Heckel and Kirchner early in his 
career; they could have led him to constructivism or 
abstract expressionism, but he resisted the temptation. 
Therein lies the extraordinary continuity of his oeuvre. 

Heclcel, Tu-oMen at a Talk 1913 (cat. no. 28) 

6. L. Cireve, M. Scnneckenberger, H. Spielmann, and G. Tniem, H. A. P. 
Grkshaher: Bin Lehenswcrk, 1000-lOSl (Stuttgart: Verlag GerJ Hatje, 
1984), p. .28. 

7. Because Scnmidt-Rottlurt refused to acknowledge tliis early work later 
in nis career, Rosa Scnapire's catalogue raisonne ot nis grapiiics begins witn 
tKo vear 1906. 

Heckel's specialty was interior scenes that express 
melancnoly ana loneliness. From early on, he aisplayed an 
ariinity lor marginal situations, lire's anxious or tearrul 
moments. Unlike Schmiat-Rottluit, he had a tendency to 
psychologize; one need only compare their portraits. Hecfeel 
took as his subjects circus perrormers, madmen, and lools, 
people who were regarded as outsiders by much or society. A 
noteworthy leature or his woodcuts is the use or nonrec- 
tangular, irregularly shaped tormats (ror example, cat. no. 
28), which give the image area a certain "eccentric 
expressive value. Heckel's rascinating color woodcuts, which 
were printed with blocks that had been sawed apart and 
inked separately, are represented here by two very ramous 
examples. Standing Child and the ascetic selr-portrait or 
1919 (cat. nos. 23ancl43). 

Tne Ditterent Metnoas or Etcning — The technique ot 
etching interested the Expressionists in their early years, 

not on account 
or its subtle ton- 
al i ties, wh ic h 
Rembrandt per- 
fected, and which 
were later used by 
the Impressionists to 
produce painterly 
errects, but because 
or the substantiality 
or the etched line 
and the depth or 
contrast that could 

be achieved in this 

medium (see WecaeVs Reclining Child ot 1910 and Schmidt- 
Rottluft's Houses in Old Dresden or 1908, cat. nos. 19 and 
50). These qualities can be enhanced by two ditrerent 
methods. In the drypoint technique the etching needle does 
not draw through the etching ground but instead cuts into 
the ungrounded metal plate, torming a raised "burr" that 

ScbmiJt-Rottluff, Houses in Old Dresden, 1908 
(cat. no. 50) 

holds the ink and prints a dark, blotted line. In aquatint, the 
impression is created by multiple etched tonal areas that 
impart a granular texture. In 1924, the last year that he 
worked in the etching medium, Schmidt-Rottlurr com- 
bined these techniques and thereby succeeded, at the 
culmination or Expressionism, in creating a singular union 
between the existing graphic elements in his work and a new 
painterly element. 

The editions or these etchings were very small because 
the raised burr oi the drypoint wore down quickly, so that 
only a tew proots could be pulled. The Expressionists in 
general disliked the practice ol steel racing printing plates, a 
process that extends their durability but that can also 
obscure the delicate ettects produced by an untreated plate. 
(They lelt much the same way about varnishing paintings.) 
An exception is Schmidt-Rottlurr 's Saffic Sea Coast (cat. no. 
/9), which was printed in an edition oi 110. 

Litnograpny — Overwhelmed by the expressive torce ot 
their woodcuts and etchings, one can easily overlook the 
accomplishments or these artists in the area or lithography. 
Unlike woodcutting or etching, lithography allows the artist 
to draw treehand, whether with crayon, pen, or brush, on the 
stone or transter paper. This medium preserves the char- 
acter or the artist's hand and the spontaneity or the drawing 
process. By 1906 these young artists had already mastered 
the impressionistic style, with its subtle gray tones 
and atmospheric chiaroscuro, adopted by the artists or 
the previous generation, especially Lovis Corinth, Max 
Liebermann, and Max Slevogt. (See Schmidt-Rottlutts 
two Dresden street scenes or 1906 and 1909, cat. nos. 49 
and 51.) 

Because ot its adaptability and tonal quality, lithogra- 
phy is especially well suited to reproducing paintings, not so 
much in the sense or a raithtui copy, but more in the sense 
ot a tree translation. Heckel reierred to his paintings in his 
graphics more frequently than Schmidt-Rottluii did. The 
original social lunction or printmaking, the ability to reach 

a large numter or people through multiple reproductions oi 
a work, was important to Hecfcel; it was a way to implement 
the Briicke program, to lorm a society or "creators ana 
appreciators. '^ 

Despite the tact that lithography made it possible to 
produce an unlimited numher or prints, the Expressionists 
never took advantage or this, and not simply because or 
their limited nnancial means. With the exception or their 
lew commissioned prints, the exact edition sizes or the 
prints made hy the Expressionists in any medium are 
unknown, but they were no doubt small, corresponding to 
the small number or interested museums and collectors at 
the time they were made. This also explains their costliness 

1 he high quality or the prints in this exhibition, and 
or Expressionist graphic art in general, is a result oi the 
unity or art and crartsmanship, or conception and execu- 
tion. The entire production process was in one person's 
hands; thus the qualitative notion or the "hand-printed 
impression. The Expressionists believed that only under 
this condition would printed graphics satisry the require- 
ment or artistic autonomy. 

Is There a New Theme in Expressionism? 

In addition to the classical themes — nudes, portraits, 
still lites, interiors, and landscapes — the Expressionists 
introduced in place or art lor art's sake a socially committed 
art. This is especially evident in the illustrated periodicals, 
such as Die Aktion, Der Sturm, Das neue Patnos, and many 
other, mostly short-lived publications. More than ever, art- 
ists sought direct, unmediated experience or the hu 
condition. They lived with farmers and fishermen. (Th 
interest in village lire is more apparent in Schmidt- 
Rottluir's works, especially from the 1920s, than in 
Heckel's.) They were attracted to the exotic, and they 
especially loved the circus and circus performers (see 
Heckel s Sambo, Pantomime, and Hanastana, cat. nos. 2, 26, 



Schmidt-Rottluff, Berliner Strasse in Dresden, 
1909 (cat. no. 51) 

and 3i&). There is a 
stronger element of 
social criticism in the 
works of younger art- 
ists such as Otto Dix, 
Conrad Felixmiiller, 
and George Grosz, 
who were more in- 
clined toward realism. 
The Expression- 
ists social conscious- 
ness wcTn them a 
certain popularity, but 
it also provoked the 
opposition of bour- 
geois society. The fas- 
cists condemned this 

new art as "degenerate" because it expressed a spirit of 
rebellion against the values of the bourgeoisie and the acad- 
emy, often less in content than in form. One can under- 
stand the sympathy of Kathe Kollwitz (1867-1945) for this 
younger generation "with their new direction." Kollwitz, 
who was a master of etching technique, chose the woodcut, 
with its posterlike quality, for her 1919 Memorial for Karl 
Lichknccnt (Liebknecht was a socialist leader who was mur- 
dered, along with Rosa Luxemburg, by right-wing extrem- 
ists). "Of course my art is not pure art in the sense that 
Schmidt-Rottluff's is," Kollwitz wrote, "but it is art none- 
theless. ... I am determined that my art serve a purpose. I 
want to have an effect on my time."^ Schmidt-Rottluff 
shared this goal, but he mistrusted politics and chose 
religious motifs instead, fie was the only Brucke 

8. For the complete text ol tne Briicke maniresto, see Peter Selz, German 
Expressionist Painting {Berkeley and Los Angeles: University ol Calilornia 
Press, 1957), p. 95. 

9. Kathe Kollwitz, journal entry, November 1922, Icn sail die Welt mit 
licDCVollen Blicken: Katne Kollwit-z: Ein Lenen in SelDstieugnissen, ea. Hans Koll- 
witz (Hannover: Faclceltrager-Verlag, J968), p. 302. 

artist to do so, with the exception or Max Pechstein, who 
prouucea a Lord s Prayer cycle in 1921. 

Schmidt-Rotthili's complete series oi rehgious wood- 
cuts or 1918 (cat. nos. 62—64 and 66—72) is a high point or 
Expressionist graphics and or this exhibition as well. These 
prints are among the lew authentic testaments to a religious 
consciousness awakened hy the horrors oi the First World 
War. Among his contemporaries, religious leeling oi such 
intensity can only be lound in the works ol Ernst Barlach, 
Emil Nolde, Christian Rohirs, and the French painter 
Georges Rouault. The major work ol this series, Krisius, 
(even the spelling, with a K rather than Ch, is provocative) 
has lost none ol its emotional appeal. 


brds and Images 

^cliTiiidt-Rottlulrs A'n5fi<5, with its memorable inte- 
gration ol the title and date into the picture lield, 
exempliries the striving lor a sell-contained design. (The 
title page ol Scnmidt-RottluH's series, the covers ol the 
Briicke Jahresmappen [annual portlolios], and the striking 
posters created by the Expressionists are also exemplary in 
this respect.) Since they could not allord to go to a proles- 
sional printer, these artists made a virtue out ol the neces- 
sity ol doing everything themselves. 

In this context we should also mention the 
Expressionists' small, but nevertheless signihcant contribu- 
tion to all aspects ol book design, including typography, 
cover design, and especially illustration, which they treated 
not as an isolated element but as an integral component ol 
the book. Erich Meckel's 190/ title page and woodcut 
illustrations lor Oscar Wilde's Tne Ballad of Rcaaing Gaol 
(cat. nos. 3 — 14) have been described as "incunabula ol 
Expressionist woodcut illustration; they mark the begin- 
ning ol all Expressionist illustration." 

During the renaissance ol book illustration at the 
beginning ol this century, which was initiated by the 
Impressionists and the Jugendstil artists, especially Lovis 

Corinth and Max Slevogt, the Expressionists, whose style 
seemed relatively crude, had lew opportunities, despite the 
unique rapport between artists and poets at this time. The 
situation improved alter the First World War, when Expres- 
sionism became more lashionable, and their lollowers took 
advantage ol it, so that despite inllation, the number ol 
illustrated books and reviews multiplied. 

The works in this exhibition were created by two art- 
ists who were Iriends and almost exact contemporaries, who 
were inspired by the same ambitions, and who were nev- 
ertheless dirrerent, yet complementary. This phenomenon 
ol artists producing dissimilar works despite a common 
background was explained by Emile Zola, who wrote: "A 
work ol art is a piece ol creation seen through a tempera- 
ment." In the space between Heckel's sensibility and 
Schmidt-Rottlull's austerity, we witness one ol the out- 
standing characteristics ol German art: its gilt lor existen- 
tial statement. 

10. Lotnar Lang, Exprc^^slonisti^chc BuL-hillnstrLition in Dcutschlaiia, 
1007-1027 (Lucerne anj Frankfurt am Main: Vcrlag C. J. BucL-r, 1975), 
p. 35. 

11. See Paul Raaoe and H. L. Greve, Exprcssionismus: Literatur una Kiinst, 
1010-1023, exn. cat. (Marfaacn; Scniller-Nationalmuseum una Deutscnes 
LiteraturarcKiv, 1960). 

12. Emile Zola, "M. H. Taine, artiste" in Mas Haines, vol. 10 ox Oeuvres 
completes (Paris, 1968), p. 154. 



A Word about Friendships between Artists 

Artists are the strongest and most legitimate indi- 
vidualists. They have to be in order to realize their potential 
fully. As a result, they are generally incapable of sustaining 
long friendships with other artists. They tend to form friend- 
ships in their youth, when they don't feel developed enough to 
achieve their objectives alone. These friendships usually fall 
apart with an artist's first success. In the twentieth century, 
more than in earlier times, ambition and ruthless self- 
advancement have been the enemies of interpersonal rela- 
tions. The exceptions confirm the rule. In the history of twen- 

tieth-century German art, there are two examples of lifelong 
friendship between artists, which came out of two famous 
artists' groups. The Blaue Reiter in Munich gave rise to the 
friendship between Wassily Kandinsky and Paul Klee, which 
was strengthened by mutual appreciation and support in 
times of need.^^ Erich Meckel and Karl Schmidt-Rottluff, mem- 
bers of the Dresden Briicke, formed an enduring friendship 
despite the dissimilarity of their natures. Meckel wrote this 
letter in 1963 as a tribute to Schmidt-Rottluff on the occasion 
of an exhibition commemorating his eightieth birthday. — G. T. 

Hemmenhofen am Bodensee 

iiber Raaoljzell 

Tel: Gaienkofen 271 

Dear Karl, 

I offer you my very best wishes on the opening of the exhibition of your works in honor of your 
eightieth birthday. The pictures that have been brought together in it are only a small part of your 
lifework, but each one displays the characteristic features of your art, so that what has been gathered 
here stands for everything that you have created. 


Erich Meckel 

17 November 1Q03 

13. See Gunther Thicm, ed., KIcc una Kanahiskii: EriimcruuLj an einc 
KunstlcrfrcunJschaft, exii. cat. (Stuttgart: Staatsgalerie Stuttgart, 1979). 


Letters: Karl Schmidt-Rottluff to Gunther Thiemi 

Hojneim/Taiinus Kapellenstrasse 3 

9.4.42 [April 9. 1Q42] 

My dear Gunther, 

Despite your unnappiness over your new duties in NfaumburgJ, I was glad to near that you 
are no longer in the lost East. Of course, it is distressing to he made an officer when one is unable to 
summon up any real enthusiasm for it, but in the service one has to eat rations when one can get 
thetn. After so much time on the front line, the garrison may seem awfully stupid, and so it is, but 
this whole era has slowly become rather stupid. It is about time that this chapter of world history 
was closed. 

In the beginning of April we traveled through Naumburg, not without a foreboding that you 
might have landed there. There have been sirens every night lately. Fortunately, we haven 't had to 
take much notice of them so far, but I don t really feel comfortable in a place where one always runs 
the risk of stepping on an antiaircraft site. At least there is some cheerful sunshine now and then. 

With all my love — and my wifes — and with our best wishes — 

Yours, SR 

Schmidt-RottluTT spent two or three weeks a year in still Lelieved in victory, and tnat he would write this to a 

Hoiheim, near FranRiurt, at the home or the collector soldier, is astonishing. — G. T. 

Hanna Bekker vom Rath, who later hecame an art dealer as 


In 1942 I came to the rear area rrom the eastern rront 

1 I cj-, .^1 ^1 Id ] ff II ^^' ^'^'-" "/■'"I't'^Pi-'^'^- Hojncim": Sammlimc) Hanna BcKKcr vam Katli, exn. cat. 

in order to become an otHcer. 1 hat bchmidt-Kottlutt would ,r: 1 c , m ■ iLl i A \\ u I * iq<jj,\ 1 • L ■„.-I J„o =„ 

(Iranbrurt am Mam: Jahriiunderthalle rioecnst, lvc>4), which includes an 

write ot the "lost East" in April or 1942, when everyone essay about tiie collector's Kome ty GuntlicrTkiem. 


Chemnitz 18/Limbacnerstrasse 382 
5.11.44 [Novemher 5, 1Q44] 

My dear G anther, 

A courier — your comraaes father-in-law — appeared today, bringing me your letters and 
packages. Thank you so much for your words of sympathy. M.y sister was very fond of you, and she 
was always quick to decide who was OK and who wasn t; she was nobody's fool. Many thanks also 
for the tobacco and the Rodin postcard. The magnificent Burghers of Calais! 

That we old people should be pessimistic about the future is a privilege of age. Ilou are in the 
midst of battle, and it was wrong of me to write to you of it. 

I believe that my painting has never been subservient to any party or trend, and I take it for 
granted that as I get older its vision will become more timeless. In this respect, I am not at all 
pessimistic. Oh, well — first we have to put the war behind us, then we can have another look around. 

I also learned of your whereabouts today. I hope that the foiiunes of war are still with you and 
that your duties are tolerable. Weve heard nothing of Roswita for some time. She was supposed to 
come here, but whether she will be able to is of course uncertain. 

All contact with Frau Roeder has been cut off — I hope that her situation is not too serious. 
1 he information in the newspapers is also probably somewhat one-sided. 

with all my love — and my wifes — 

\ours, SR 

Alter losing his apartment and studio during the Rottluffs, and she helped tliem until the end of tlieir lives, 
homhing of Berlin, Schmidt-Rottluff moved to his home- Frau Roeder is the sculptor Emy Roeder, who had 

town of Rottluff, near Chemnitz, and lived with his sister, heen Schmidt-Rottluff's friend since 1919. In 1934 she was 

who died during this period. A number of his important awarded a grant for study in Florence, and in protest against 

paintings were kept at his parents' house there. Some of the Nazi regime, she refused to return to Germany. At the 

them are now in museums in Chemnitz (now known as time this letter was written she was living alone in the house 

Karl-Marx-Stadt) and East Berlin. provided for grant recipients from Germany, the Villa 

Roswita Stuhte, the daughter of the Leipzig collector Romana, where I was ahle to visit her in January 1944. 

Victor Peters, was like a daughter to the childless Schmidt- — G. T. 


Erich Meckel 

Reclining Child, 1910 (cat. no. 19) 


Ue Fool, 1917 (cat. no. 40) 

Girlhy the Sea, 1918 (cat. no. 41) 


Lunatic at the Table, 1914 (cat. no. 34) 

HanJstanJ, 1916 (cat. no. 38) 


Self-Portrait, 1919 (cat. no. 43) 


TI'T rifflimi ilia'-'iilli-^ffc-i'lVirihr-lS-Ti-'r-rirM 

j^Schmidt-Rottluff j 

Large Prophetess, 1919 (cat. no. 76) 


Mother, 1916 (cat. no. 



Portrait of WR. Valentiner I, 1923 (cat. no. 81) 

HeaJs I, 1911 (cat. no. 53) 


Bay in Moonlight, 1914 (cat. no. 59) 



A Note to the Reader — The checklist or the exhibition is 
arranged chronologically according to the standard cata- 
logue raisonne lor each artist. Unless otherwise indicated, 
all worEs are printed in hiack on white paper. The dimen- 
sions given tor each print describe the image size rather 
than the sheet size, and in all measurements, height pre- 
cedes width. The rererences listed ror each work indicate its 
mention in the standard catalogues raisonnes. Rererences 
are abbreviated by the last name or the author. Fuller rerer- 
ences to these publications can be tound in the bibliography. 


Erich Meckel (Germany, 1883-1971 

Before Sunrise, 1904 

Woodcut printed in dark green and light gray-green 

31/4x5% in. (8.2 X 15 cm) 

Signed, titled, and inscribed 

Rererences: variant or Dube 26 b (berore monogram) 

Reed 51 

The Robert Gore Rirkind Center ror German 

Expressionist Studies 


Sambo, 1905 

woodcut printed in black and ocher 

6'/8 X 41/4 in. (15.6 X 10.8 cm) 

Signed, titled, and dated 

Rererences: Dube 56 b; Reed 52 

The Robert Gore Rirkind Center ror German 

Expressionist Studies 


Illustrations for Oscar Wilde's "The Ballad of Reading Gaol," 1907 

Portrolio oi eleven woodcuts, plus woodcut title page 

Original gray cardLoard folder: l5V-i x 9'/4 in. (40 x 23.5 cm) 

Signed; some plates inscribed 

References: Dube 120-131; Reed 54 

The Robert Gore Rifkind Center for German 

Expressionist Studies 


Sailboat, 1907 


6'/8x8yi6in. (15.5x21.8 cm) 

Signed, dated, and inscribed 

Plate 1 of the third Jahresmappe, or annual portrolio, oi the 

Brucke, 1908 

References: Dube 143 Lb; Bolliger and Kornfeld 10; 

Reed 53 

The Robert Gore Rifkind Center for German 

Expressionist Studies 


Sailboat, 1907 


6'/8x8'yi6in. (15.5x21.8 cm) 

Signed, dated, and inscribed 

Variant printing of cat. no. 15 

References: Dube 143 I.L; Bolliger and Kornfeld 10; 

Reed 53/2 (incorrectly described as second state) 

The Robert Gore Rifkind Center for German 

Expressionist Studies 



Poster for the Opening Exhibition of the C. G. Oncken Art Gallery in 
Lappan, Oldenburg, 1909 

wotiacLit on Drownisii paper 

33'/i6 X 23'/3 in. (84x59.8 cm) 

References: Dube 172; Reed 55 

Trie Robert Gore Rilkind Collection, Beverly Hills, 



Postcard of Tightrope Walker, c. 1909 


5'/2 X 3'/io in. (13.9x8.8 cm) 

Postcard text signed by Heckel; dated 1909 on postal 


Rererences: Reed 56 

Tbe Robert Gore Rirkind Center ror German 

Expressionist Studies 


Reclining Child, 1910 


5'/i6 X 7^16 in. (12.9 X 19.2 cm) 

Signed, dated ("12"), and inscribed 

Rererences: Dube 79 A; Reed 57 

The Robert Gore Rilkind Center tor German 

Expressionist Studies 


Street by the Harbor, 1910 


611/16 X 7 Vs in. (17x20 cm) 

bigned and dated 

Plate 3 oi tbe sixtb Jabresmappe or tne Briicke, 1911 

References: Dube 91; Bolliger and Kornfeld 24; 
Reed 59 

Tne Robert Gore Rirkind Center tor German 
Expressionist Studies 


Sailboat, 1910 


10% x 12V8 in. (276 X 32.8 cm) 

Signed and dated 

References: Dube 149 

Tne Robert Gore Rifkind Center for German 

Expressionist Studies 


Cover for the E. L. Kirchner Portfolio, 1910 

Woiidcut on yellow cover sttick 

IVA X IS^A in. (29.9 X 40 cm) 

From the Kfth jabresmappe of the Briicke, 1910 

References: Dube 181; Bolliger and Kornfeld 17; Reed 79 

The Robert Gore Rifkind Center for German 

Expressionist Studies 


Standing Child, 1910 

Woodcut printed in red, green, and black 

14'/s X 10% in. (377 X 276 cm) 

bigned and dated ("11") 

Plate 1 of the sixth Jabresmappe of the Briicke, 1911 

References: Dube 204 b.2; Bolliger and Kornfeld 22; 

Reed 60 

The Robert Gore Rifkind Center for German 

Expressionist Studies 



Bathers at the Pond, 1912 

Woodcut on pink paper 

53/16 X 45/16 in. (13.1 X 11cm) 

From tne catalogue or trie exnibition Die Briicke at 

Galerie Fritz Gurlitt, Berlin, 1912 

Rererences: Dute 227 I; Bolliger ana Kornleld 42/2 

Tne Rotert Gore Rirbincl Center tor German 

Expressionist Studies 


Nude Washing Herself, 1912 

ucHiucut on pink paper 

5'/4x4'/»in. (13.3 X 10.5 cm) 

From tne catalogue or tke exninition Die Briicke at Galerie 

Fritz Gurlitt, Berlin, 1912 

References: Dube 228; Bolliger and Kornfeld 42/3 

Tne Robert Gore Ritkind Center tor German 

Expressionist Studies 


Pantomime by W. S. Guttmann, 1912 


3% X 4^16 in. (8.5 X 11 cm) 

References: DuLe 232 IV; Reed 61 

Tne Robert Gore Ritkind Center tor German 

Expressionist Studies 


The Murder of Akull<a by Dostoyevsl(i, 1912 


6'/sx4yibin. (15.5 x 11cm) 

Rererences: Dube 237; Reed 62 

Tbe Robert Oore Rilkind Center ror German 
Expressionist Studies 


Two Men at a Table, 1913 


9'/4x lO'Ain. (23.5x26 cm) 


References: Dube 250 I; Reed 63 

Tne Robert Gore Rifkind Center for German 

Expressionist Studies 


Spring Landscape, 1913 


lO'A X 83/8 in. (25.9 X 21.3 cm) 

From Das KimsthJati 2, no. 1 (1918) 

References: Dube 255 B; Reed 283/39 

Tbe Robert Gore Rifkind Center for German 

Expressionist Studies; purcnased witb funds provided 

by Anna Bing Arnold, Museum Acquisition Fund, 

and Deaccession Funds 


Woman, 1913 

Woodcut printed in black and red 
7'/8x4'/4in. (18.1 x 10.7 cm) 
Signed and dated 

From tne tbird Ganymed portfolio, 1924, wbicb 
accompanied Ganymea 5 (1925) 
References: Dube 259 II.B; Reed 317/36 
Tbe Robert Gore Rifkind Center for German 
Expressionist Studies 



Man and Girl, 1913 


10'yi6x8'/2 in. (27.5x21.6 cm) 

Signed and dated 

Reierences: Dute 261 II 

Art Museum Council purcnase in memory or Gwynne 

Hazen Cnerry 


Girl's Head, 1913 


lO'/s X 611/16 in. (25.8 X 17 cm) 

From Genius 2 (1920) 

References: DuLe 264 III.B; Reed 275/9 

The Robert Gore Ritkind Center lor German 

Expressionist Studies; purchased with lunds provided 

Dy Anna Bing Arnold, Museum Acquisition Fund, 

and Deaccession Funds 


Sick Girl, 1913 


7'/2x5'/2in. (19 x 14 cm) 

From K. Piister, Deutsche Graphiker aer Gegenwart 

(Leipzig: Klinfchardt & Biermann, 1920) 

Reierences: Dute 266 B; Reed 339 

The Robert Gore Rilleind Center ror German 

Expressionist Studies 


Lunatic at the Table, 1914 


71/2x5% in. (19x 14.3 cm) 

From Das KunstUaii 1, no. 2 ( 1917) 

References: DuLe 129 B; Reed 283/10 
The Robert Gore Rifleind Center for German 
Expressionist Studies; purchased with funds provided 
by Anna Bing Arnold, Museum Acquisition Fund, 
and Deaccession Funds 


Two Wounded Men, 1914 


16yi6 X 10% in. (42.1 X 26.3 cm) 

Signed and dated; signed by printer Voigt 

From the portfolio Elf Holzschnitte, pubhshed by J. B. 

Neumann, 1921 

References: Dube 276 II. B 

Gift of Donavon W. and Mary C. Byer 


Sunrise, 1914 


9'%6 X 12% in. (25.2 X 32.4 cm) 

Signed and dated; signed by printer Voigt 

From the second portfolio of the group Kreis graphischer 

Kiinstler und Sammler, published by Verlag Arndt Beyer, 


References: Dube 284 II. B 
Gift of Dr. Ernest Schwarz 


Disciple, 1915 


14'/4X IP/loin. (36.1x29 cm) 
Signed, dated, and inscribed 
References: Dube 300 II 


The Robert Gore Rirfcind Center ror German 
Expressionist Studies 


Handstand, 1916 


ll'/8 X 73/4 in. (28.2 X 19.7 cm) 

Signed and dated 

From Die Sclmffeudcn 1, no. 1 ( 1919-20) 

Reierences: Dune 230 I; trom edition oi 25 on 

lapan paper 

The Rotert Gore Rilkind Center for German 

Expressionist Studies 


Near Ghent, 1916 


10"/l6 X 8^16 in. (27.1 X 21.1 cm) 

rrom Der Bilaennann 1, no. 16 (1916) 

References: DuLe 238 II.B; Reed 265/12 

The Robert Gore Riffcind Center for German 

Expressionist Studies 


The Fool, 1917 


141/8 X 10% in. (35.8 X 27.2 cm) 

Signed and dated 

From Deutsche Kiinstler, the hfth portfono of Baunaus 

Driicke: Neue europaische Graphik, 1921 

References: Dube 309 II.B; Reed 65 

The Robert Gore Riffcind Center for German 

Expressionist Studies 


Girl by the Sea, 1918 


18/8 X 12V8 in. (46.1 X 32.6 cm) 
Signed and dated 
References: Dube 314 A 
Graphic Arts Council Fund 


The Stroll, 1919 


181/8 X L2V8in. (46 X 32.6 cm) 

Signed and dated ("20") 

References: Dube 317 I; Reed 66 

The Robert Gore Riffcind L enter for German 

Expressionist Studies 


Self-Portrait, 1919 

Woodcut printed in blacfc, green, brown, and blue 

185/16 X 12% in. (46.2 X 32.6 cm) 

Signed and dated 
References: Dube 318 II 
Graphic Arts Council Fund 


Men at the Beach, 1919 


6% X 51/4 in. (17.5 X 13.4 cm) 

From P. Kuppers, Das Kestnerbucn (Hannover: Heinrich 

Bobme Verlag, 1919) 

References: Dube 319 II.B; Reed 321/1 

The Robert Gore Riffcind L enter for German Expressionist 

Studies; purchased with funds provided by Anna Bing 


Arnold, Museum Acquisition Fund, and Deaccession Funds 


Poster for the First Exhibition of Contemporary German Art, 
Krefeld, 1920 


251/16 X 17' 3/16 in. (63.6 .X 45.2 cm) 

Signed ana dated 

References: Dute 324; Reed 67 

Tne Robert Gore Riikind Collection, Beverly Hills, 



Folding Cover for the Catalogue of the Exhibition "Erich Heckel" 
at the Kunsthiitte Chemnitz, 1931 

Woodcut printed in nlacb and yellowisn Drown 

6% X 36/8 in. (16.9x91.7 cm) 

References: DuLe 346; Reed 69/1 

Tne Robert Gore Rilbind Center lor German Expressionist 

Studies; purchased with funds provided by Anna Bing 

Arnold, Museum Acquisition Fund, and Deaccession Funds 


Karl Schmidt-Rottluff (Germany. 1884-1976) 

Two by the Sea, 1920 


7x53/8 in. (17.8 X 13.6 cm) 

From R Westneim, Das Hohscnnitthiicn (Postdam: Gustav 

Kiepenneuer, 1921) 

References: Dube 326 B; Reed 319/3 

Tne Robert Gore Rifbind Center for German Expressionist 

Studies; purchased with funds provided by Anna Bing 

Arnold, Museum Acquisition Fund, and Deaccession Funds 


Table of Contents, 1921 


123/4x8% in. (32.4x21.8 cm) 

Signed and dated 

From the portfolio Elf Holzschnitte, published 

by). B. Neumann, 1921 

References: Dube 329 B; Reed 68 

The Robert Gore Rifhind Center for German 

Expressionist Studies 


Holbeinplatz (Dresden), 1906 


8/4 X 133/4 in. (21 X 35 cm) 

Signed, dated, and titled 

Plate 4 of the second Jahresmappe, or annual portfolio, 

of the Briicke, 1907 

References: Schapire 8; Bolliger and Kornfeld 9 

The Robert Gore Rifhind Center for German 

Expressionist Studies 


Houses in Old Dresden, 1908 

Etching on yellowish paper 

53/8x7Vl6in. (13.6 X 18.6 cm) 


Plate 3 of the fourth Jahresmappe of the Briiche, 1909 

References: Schapire 9; Bolliger and Kornfeld 16; 

Reed 113 

The Robert Gore Rifhind Center for German 

Expressionist Studies 



Berliner Strasse in Dresden, 1909 


153/4 X 13^16 in. (40 X 33.3 cm) 


Plate 2 ot tne rourtn Janresmappe of tne Briicke, 1909 

Reterences: Scnapire 57; Bolligerana Korntela 15; 

Reed 112 

Tne Robert Gore Riikind Center tor German 

Expressionist Studies 


Harbor and Devil's Bridge, 1911 


24% X 21 in. (63 X 53.8 cm) 

Signed and dated 
Reterences: Scnapire 63 
Grapnic Arts Council Fund 


Heads 1, 1911 


19"/l6 X 15'/l6 in. (50 X 392 cm) 

Signed and dated 

Reterences: Scnapire 66; Reed 115 

Tne Robert Gore Riifcind Center tor German 

Expressionist Studies 


Portrait of S. (Robert Seckel), 1911 


15% X 13% in. (40 X 33.6 cm) 


Reterences: Scnapire 72 

The Robert Gore RitKind Center tor German 
Expressionist Studies 


Women Combing Hair, 1912 

Woodcut on pi UK paper 

5'/4x4yibin. (13.3 X 11cm) 

From the catalogue ol the exhibition Die Briicke 

at Galerie Fritz Gurlitt, Berlin, 1912 

Reterences: Schapire 97; Bolliger and Kornleld 42/9 

The Robert Gore Rirkind Center tor German 

Expressionist Studies 


Seated Girl, 1912 

Woodcut on pink paper 

5/4x4^16 in. (13.3 X 11cm) 

From the catalogue or the exhibition Die Briicke 

at Galerie Fritz Gurlitt, Berlin, 1912 

Reterences: Schapire 98; Bolliger and Kornteld 42/10 

The Robert Gore Rirkind Center tor German 

Expressionist Studies 


Seated Woman with Disheveled Hair, 1913 


141/8 X 11% in. (35.9 X 29.8 cm) 
Signed by printer Voigt 
Reterences: Schapire 123 
Gift of Kurt Wolff 



Seated Girl, 1913 


UVu. X lY'Vih in. (36 X 45.2 cm) 

Signed, dated, and numbered with work number " 1326 

Rererences: Scnapire 124 

The Robert Gore Rirhind Center ror German 

Expressionist Studies 


Bay in Moonlight, 1914 


155/8 X 19% in. (39.8 X 49.8 cm) 


Rererences: Schapire 160; Reed 116 

The Robert Gore Riikind Center lor German 

Expressionist Studies 


By the Nets, 1914 


15'% X 19% in. (40.2 x 49.8 cm) 


From the portloho Zehn Holzschnitte, published 

byj. B.Neumann, 1919 

Relerences: Schapire 166 . " 

Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Fred Grunwald 


Mother, 1916 


I6I/4 X 12% in. (41.2 X 32.4 cm) 


From the portfolio Zehn Holzschnitte, published 

byJ. B.Neumann, 1919 

References: Schapire 194; Reed 11/ 

The Robert Gore Rifkind Center for German 

Expressionist Studies 


Title Page, 1918 


19"/l6 X 15% in. (50 X 39.8 cm) 


From the portfolio Schmidt-Rottluff Neun Holzschnitte, 

published by Kurt Wolff, 1918 

References: Schapire, Gebrauchsblatter 40 

The Robert Gore Rifkind Center for German 

Expressionist Studies 


Kiss in Love, 1918 


19"/l6 X 15%6 in. (50 X 38.9 cm) 


From the portfolio Schmidt-Rottluff Neun Holzschnitte, 

published by Kurt Wolff, 1918 

References: Schapire 206 

Gift of Kurt Wolff 


Kristus (Christ), 1918 


19y4 X 16% in. (50.1 X 391 cm) 

Signed and numbered with work number " 186" 

From the portfolio Schmidt-Rottluff Neun Holzschnitte, 

published by Kurt Wolff, 1918 

References: Schapire 208; Reed 121; proof before 

edition of 75 


The Robert Gore Rirkind Center ror German 
Expressionist Studies 


Girl from Kaunas, 1918 


19'/: X 155/8 in, (49.5x39 cm) 


From tne porttolio Zenn Holzscnnitte, putlisned 

LyJ. B. Neumann, 1919 

References: Scnapire 209; Reed 119 

Tne Rotert Gore Rilfcind Center for German 

Expressionist Studies 


Disciple, 1918 


193/4 X 15 "/16 in. (50.2 X 39.8 cm) 


From tne porttolio Scnmidt-Rottluir Neun Holzscnnitte, 

published hy Kurt Wolff, 1918 

References: Schapire 211 

Gift of Kurt Wolff 


Walk to Emmaus, 1918 


15% X 19% in. (397 X 499 cm) 


From the portfolio Schmidt-Rottluff Neun Holzschnitte, 

published by Kurt Wolff, 1918 

References: Schapire 212 

Gift of Kurt Wolff 


Christ and the Fig Tree, 1918 


19"/i6 X 15yih in. (50 X 39.5 cm) 


From the portfolio Schmidt-Rottluff Neun Holzschnitte, 

published by Kurt Wolff, 1918 

References: Schapire 213 

Gift of Kurt Wolff 


Peter Fishing, 1918 


15% X 19'yib in. (39.7 X 50 cm) 


From the portfolio Schmidt-Rottluff Neun Holzschnitte, 

published by Kurt Wolff, 1918 

References: Schapire 214 

Gift of Kurt Wolff 


Christ and the Adulteress, 1918 


15% X 19^16 in. (397 X 49.8 cm) 


From the portfolio Schmidt-Rottluff Neun Holzschnitte, 

published by Kurt Wolff, 1918 

References: Schapire 215 

Gift of Kurt Wolff 



Mary, 1918 


19"/l6 X 15% in. (50 X 39.7 cm) 


From trie portfolio Scnmidt-Rottlurl Neun Holzscnnitte 

puLlished ty Kurt WolH, 1918 

Rererences: Scnapire 216 

Gift of Kurt Wolff 


Saint, 1918 


lO'A X 8 in. (26.1 X 20.3 cm) 

From Die rote Erde 1, no. 6 (1919) 

References: Scnapire 231; Reed 298 

The Robert Gore Rifkind Center for German Expressionist 

Studies; purcfiased with funds provided by Anna Bing 

Arnold, Museum Acquisition Fund, and Deaccession Funds 


Christ and Judas, 1918 


15% X 19 "/lo in. (39.7 X 50 cm) 

Signed and numbered with work number " 1816" 

From the portfolio Schmidt-Rottluff Neun Holzschnitte, 

published by Kurt Wolff, 1918 

References: Schapire 218; Reed 122; proof before 

edition of 75 

The Robert Gore Rifkind Center for German 

Expressionist Studies 


Standing Female Nude, 1918 


6'/2 X 3^16 in. ( 16.5 X 9 cm) 

Illustration for Alfred Brust's play Das Spiel Chrisia vom 

Scnmer2 aer Scltonneit Jes Weibcs from the monographic 

series Der rote Hahn, vol. 29/30 (Berlin: Verlag der 

Woehenschrift Die Aktion, 1918) 

References: Schapire 220; Reed 118 

The Robert Gore Rifkind Center for German Expressionist 

Studies; purchased with funds provided by Anna Bing 

Arnold, Museum Acquisition Fund, and Deaccession Funds 


Table of Contents, 1919 


19% X 151/5 in. (497 X 39.4 cm) 


From the portfolio Zehn Holzschnitte, published by 

J. B. Neumann, 1919 

References: Schapire, Gebrauchsblatter 43; Reed 120 

The Robert Gore Rifkind Center for German 

Expressionist Studies 


Large Prophetess, 1919 


19'yi6 X ISVs in. (50 X 39 cm) 
Signed by artist and printer Voigt 
References; Schapire 258 
Gift of Kurt Wolff 


The German Coat of Arms, 1919 


19"/i6 X 15% in. (50 X 39.8 cm) 

Signed and numbered with work number ' 1935 


Rererences: Schapire 262; Reed 124 

Tne Robert Gore Riffeind Center for German 

Expressionist Studies 


The Embrace, 1920 


19"/i6 X 15^16 in. (60 X 39.6 cm) 
Signed ty printer Voigt 
References: Scnapire 264 
Gift of Kurt Wolff 


Baltic Sea Coast, 1920 


9Vl6 X 11% in. (24 X 29.5 cm) 

Signed ty artist and printer Voigt 

From the second portfolio of trie group Kreis grapfiiscner 

Kiinstler und Sammler, publisned by Verlag Arndt Beyer, 


References: Scnapire 38 
Gift of Dr. Ernest Scbwarz 


Portrait of W. R. Valentiner 1, 1923 


2013/16 X 15'/2 in. (52.9 X 39.4 cm) 

Signed and numbered witb work number "2332" 
References: Scbapire 297 

Tbe Robert Gore Rifkind Center for German 
Expressionist Studies 


Portrait of W. R. Valentiner 1, 1923 

Woodcut, trial proof on yellow paper 

2013/16 X 15'/2 in. (52.9 x 39.4 cm) 

References: Scbapire 297 
Anonymous gift 


Cover for the Periodical "Kiindung," 1920 

woodcut printed witb orange background 

12'/8 X 9% in. (30.8 X 23.8 cm) 


References: Scbapire, Gebraucbsblatter 52; 

Reed 125; proof 

Tbe Robert Gore Rifkind Center for German 

Expressionist Studies 




Bolliger, H., and E. Kornrela. Ausstellung Kiinstlergruppe 
Briicke: Janresmappen 1000-1012. Bern: Klipstein & 
KornfelJ, 1958. 

Carey, H, ana A. Griiritns. The Print in Germany, 

1880-1033. London: Tlie British Museum, 1984. 

Cnipp, H. Tke Human Image in German Expressionist Graphic 
Art from the Robert Gore Rifkina Foundation. Berkeley: 
University Art Museum, 1981. 

Dube, A., and W.-D. Dube. Erich Heckel: Das graphisches 
Werk.3 vols. New York: Ernest Ratkenau, 1964-74 

Dijckers, A. Graphik aer "Briicke" in Berliner 

Kupjerstichkahinett. Bernn: Staatucne Museen 
Preussiscner Kulturbesitz, 1984. 

Feinblatt,E. German Expressionist Prints. Los Angeles: 
Los Angeles Lounty Museum, 1954. 

Fehx, Z., ed. Erich Heckel, 1883-1070. Essen: Museum 
Folkwang, 1983. 

Gabler, K. Erich Heckel una sein Kreis: Dokumente. Karlsruke: 
Stadtiscbe Galerie im Prinz-Max-Palais, 1983. 

. Erich Heckel: Zeichnungen, Aquarelle. Karlsruke: 

Stadtiscke Galerie im Prinz-Max-Palais, 1983. 

Grokmann, W. Karl SchmiJt-Rottluff. Stuttgart: Verlag W. 
Koklkammer, 1956. 

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SclimiJt-Rottluff, Christ and Judas, 1918 (cat. no. 72) 

PuDlished ty the 

Los Angeles County Museum or Art 

5905 Wilskire Boulevard 

Los Angeles, California 90036 

Copyrignt © 1985 Museum Associates 
Los Angeles County Museum ot Art 
All rignts reserved 
Printed in the U.S.A. 

Tne putlication or tnis orocnure is runded in part by a 
generous donation rrom tne Rotert Gore Rirkind Foundation. 

Typeset in Bernnard and Univers races by Andresen Typograpnics/Tucson 
Printed in an edition or 2000 by Typecrart Inc. /Pasadena 

Edited by Karen jacobson 

Designed by Robin Weiss 

Pnotograpny by Steven Oliver, Photographic Services 

Essay and letters translated by Karen Jacobson 


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